Algeria (the country of a million martyrs) is one of the largest Arab and African countries in
terms of area, and the tenth in the world, located to the northwest of the continent of
Africa, and overlooks from the northern side of the Mediterranean .
Algeria has a long history. Many civilizations succeeded in it, but the French occupation
destroyed many archaeological sites to build new cities in their place or establish prisons .
History of Algeria
The history of Algeria has passed through several stages, which are as follows:
Many human bones and archaeological sites have been found in Algeria, which are up to
two million years old, and the excavations and discoveries that have been made have shown a tomb for a type of extinct elephant and this indicates the emergence of life in the region . The finding of the feet of a prehistoric man, called the Tignev man or the Atlas man, was the best evidence for the existence of life in those ages, and this discovery was one of the greatest and most important discoveries that were found on the national level of Algeria and on the world level. This discovery is more than five hundred thousand years old.
The Phoenicians who were settling in the Levant controlled the external and internal trade in
the Mediterranean coasts, and they worked to establish a number of commercial stations,
the most important of which was the station of Cartagena in the eighth century BC on the
coast of Tunisia, and this influence extended as far as the coasts of Algeria, at which time
the Phoenicians established a number of cities Coastal areas .
During the Roman occupation, the Roman Empire called the eastern part of the Roman
Kingdom the Kingdom of Caesarea (Algeria), during the reign of the king
(Ptolemy bin Yuba II), after Caligula conquered it, and this section became the king. The military region under the authority of the imperial crown in a direct way. Eastern Mauritania became known as Caesarea, after its capital, Ayol.
During the collapse of the Roman state and its fragmentation between the Eastern
Byzantine Empire and its capital, Constantinople, and the West, which was controlled by the
Goths, the Byzantines were able to occupy Algeria and impose their control over it after
they overthrew the Vandalian rule there, in the era of the Islamic conquests.
The era of the Islamic state
After the Islamic conquests that extended to include the entire North Africa, including
Algeria, the state was subject to the rule of many states, such as the Rustamid state,
followed by the Idrisid state, the majority state, the Fatimid state, the Zirid state, the
Hammadid state, the monotheist state, and the Zabani state.
The period of the Spanish occupation
Algeria was the main target of many military campaigns, carried out by a number of Spanish
and Portuguese emperors, kings, princes and pirates, with a religious aim by spreading the
Catholic religion there, in addition to economic goals such as permanently occupying
strategic sites, and taking those sites as bases for expanding the settlement area .
The period of Ottoman rule
Algeria joined the Ottoman state after requesting assistance from them, and then Algeria
turned into a socialist state alongside Asia Minor, and the Algerian fleet was established,
which was considered at its time the most powerful in the world as a whole, as this fleet
controlled the navigation movement in the Mediterranean, and all ships had to pay Traffic
fine to receive protection by the fleet, and Algeria was at that time providing aid to the
Ottomans in exchange for weapons and military and civilian equipment.
French forces invaded Algeria in 1830 A.D., and Algeria became a French colony soon after,
and in a period of 130 years Algeria became a full part of the French Republic, and during
this period many people immigrated from France to live in Algerian cities and their number
exceeded the number of their original inhabitants. .
The French influence was strong on Algerian culture, economy and society, in addition to
Algerians’ resentment of slavery, political bad treatment, and the denial of fundamental rights and freedoms.
And the war ended with France granting independence to Algeria in 1962, as many
Algerians lost their lives, and many colonists and sympathizers left Algeria for France.