One of the ancient Egyptian cities, known as Memphis or Memphis, in addition to its famous name Memphis, was classified as one of the world heritage cities, and was founded in the year 3200 BC, by King Narmo and he took it as his capital and for Egypt as a whole, specifically during the ancient state known as the Dynasties, Its inhabitants worshiped the god Ptah. Currently, it is located near the Saqqara area, on the southern side of the capital, Cairo, nineteen kilometers from it, and the city was known as the White Wall, and this name remained on it until the twenty-sixth century BC, until the Egyptians called it Nefer, but the Greeks distorted The name became Memphis until the Arabs came and called it Memphis.
Origin and history
The city of Memphis occupied and still occupies the first place in terms of importance compared to the rest of the ancient historical Egyptian cities, specifically located in the north and south of it. BC, and the aim of its establishment was to unify the upper and lower sides of Egypt, to become under one command and control, and at the same time to be the new national capital of Egypt. And it remained so until the end of the era of the Old Kingdom, to include the succession of the First and Eighth Dynasties, and despite the spread of the settlements belonging to the royal family on the eastern banks of the Maadi region, to the north and south of Helwan, but it has not been determined until this time that the settlements of the city. The city of Memphis played a major role in all aspects, including the economic, political, as well as religious aspects, throughout the historical Egyptian period, specifically during the period of conflict between the goddess Set and the god Hor; The number of followers of the first of them increased, which led to the establishment of the fifth king of the dynasty of his name instead of the word hur on the front facade of the royal palace.
Monuments and ancient monuments
The city has many monuments and monuments dating back to ancient times, the most important of which are the following: The pyramid of Djoser is known as the pyramid of Saqqara. The Step Pyramid built by Imhotep, and rebuilt by King Djoser during the Third Dynasty, more than two thousand seven hundred meters ago. The open-air museum, located in the villages of hostage. The colossal statue of Ramses II, and another similar statue to him is on the ground. Statue of Ramses II at the entrance to the Open Air Museum. A statue in the form of a Sphinx, made of alabaster, in addition to various other antiquities.
Memphis was known as the “White Wall” until the twenty-sixth century BC, until the Egyptians called it “Men Nefer”, a name that the Greeks misrepresented as “Memphis”.
When the capitals of ancient Egypt are mentioned throughout ancient Egyptian history in the north, center and south of the country, the capital of capitals ‘Memphis’ comes on its head as a crown on the heads of all capitals.
The city of cities that witnessed the unification of the country of Egypt at the hands of its strong men from Upper Egypt, headed by the ‘Second Scorpion’ (One of the kings of Family Zero) and King Narmer (head of the First Dynasty), where the location of this capital (about 3200 BC) was chosen with extreme precision to play its political, economic and strategic role and to become the capital of the old state throughout the families from the first to the eighth.
Since its inception, Memphis has become the key to the movement of life in Egypt. In its shadow, intellectual, economic and social life flourished, architecture, arts and religious thought rose, as it was the main crossing from the north of the country to its south and vice versa. After witnessing the first stone architecture (in Saqqara) and the development of the royal cemetery until it reached a pyramidal shape, its cemeteries (the Memphis cemetery extending from Abu Rawash in the north to Meidum in the south) became the most famous cemeteries in all of Egypt.
And if Memphis stopped – for a limited period – from playing a political role with the end of the old state, but it never lost its role as a center of gravity in the movement of life in ancient Egypt. Memphis and one of the deities that dominate religious life in Egypt) Most of the kings of Egypt throughout all ages sought to dedicate buildings and erect shrines and paintings to bless the city and its Lord, and it remained a mirror that reflects Egypt’s civilized face. And when Egypt was exposed to strong winds represented by all those who tried to invade it, Memphis had a prominent role in steadfastness and struggle, and it was the key to all of Egypt’s gates.
No colonizer of ancient Egypt could reach the depth of the country unless he managed to control Memphis. Memphis has always expressed the state of the glow of the Egyptian civilization, and the ‘thermometer’ that expresses the spirits of the people of Egypt, whether up or down, and always a haven in all crises. And all the invaders realized the location and position of Memphis in the hearts and minds of the Egyptians, so they sought it, peace or war, realizing that controlling Memphis is controlling all of Egypt. . The rulers of Egypt from the Ptolemies were associated with this great city, and some of their kings bore the title ‘Beloved Ptah’ (Ptah) among their names that were included in their cartouches.
Since its inception, the city of Memphis bears the name ‘Enb Haj’, which means ‘the white wall’, then from the Sixth Dynasty it bears the name ‘Min Nefer’ which means ‘steady and beautiful’, and since the Middle Kingdom it has been called ‘Ankh Tawi’ which means ‘the life of the two lands’ and what is meant The two lands here are the diameters of Egypt (Northern and Upper Egypt), then ‘Makhat-Tawi’, meaning ‘the balance of the two lands’. Then, starting from the modern state, it is called by another name, which is ‘Mitt Rahnat’, meaning ‘The Road of Rams’ (which is actually the path of the Sphinxes between the city and its cemetery). That name is (Mitt Rahina) by which it has been known since the Arabs entered Egypt in the middle of the century. Seventh A.D. (One Hundred Hostages; Minya Hina; Mit Rahina) This village is in the midst of the archaeological ruins of the ancient city of Memphis. Also, during the modern state (specifically the Nineteenth Dynasty) three other names for the city also appeared: two linking it to its most important worshipers (the creator ‘Ptah’, and ‘Tatanin’: ‘the land that stands out’ from the eternal ocean), so it was known as ‘New Ptah’ meaning ‘ The city of Petah and ‘Newt Tatenen’ which means ‘the city of Tatenen’. As for the third name, it is ‘Newt-Heh’ or ‘Newt-Naha’ which means ‘the eternal city’ or ‘the eternal city’…, and other names, adjectives and epithets that were given to it as ‘Pet-n-Kemt’ meaning ‘the sky of Egypt’. , and ‘Hot-ka-Ptah’, which means ‘the temple of the consort (spirit) of Ptah’, which is the name that the Egyptians attached to, so they named the temple and city of ‘Dandara’: ‘Ra-Hut-ka-Pah’ to distinguish it from its counterpart in Memphis.
Memphis, the city of Al-Mada’in in ancient Egypt, which was the capital of ‘Enb-Haj’ (The White Wall), the first of the regions of Lower Egypt, is currently a group of archaeological ruins in an area of about 600 hectares (?) located in a wide plain where Upper Egypt meets Lower Egypt, About 25 km from the head of the Delta south of central Cairo, and 35 km south of central Cairo on the west bank of the Nile, 3 km away from it. km between Abu Sir in the north and Dahshur in the south, in the north at Kafr (Kom) Al Qalaa, and its location is approximately 17.5 km away from the Giza pyramids. It is currently affiliated with Al-Ayat – Markaz Al-Badrasheen in Giza Governorate, near Maadi and the Kotsika-Tura-Masara Quarries, Al-Omari (Rao) and Helwan (the old Anu, Izbet al-Walda now), at the villages of Mit Rahina. And the current ‘Aziziyah’ (58.8 29 51 51 north and 15.4 15 31 east Greenwich), in addition to the area surrounding them, its northern border is at the town of ‘Al Manawat’, and its southern border is at Tel/Kom. The Citadel (= Dahshur), its residential ruins and the area of the temples of its masters, which are bounded by a vast sanctuary that matches its current location in the villages and cities of Aziziya, Ezbet Gabri, Mit-Rahina, Al-Badrashin, the ‘Shinbab’; Scattered with its archaeological ruins and next to it until Saqqara.
Because of the importance of that city, the sprawling ‘the site of ancient Memphis and its cemetery’ from Giza (33.8° 58°N, 31° 7° East) to Dahshur’, was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List (Unesco WHC No. 86) on the UNESCO World Heritage List. On 9 March / 10 April 1979 AD based on cultural criteria I, III and VI [Criteria: C (i) (iii) (vi)], a ‘Site Evaluation Report’ was made in 1998 www.unesco.org/whc/ sites/86.htm . Sensing from the ancient Egyptian the importance of Memphis and its uniqueness as the capital of Egypt throughout the ages; One of the scribes, when talking about the royal decree to build the Ramesses headquarters in the eastern delta, described it, likening it to the immortality of Memphis, saying: ‘The new headquarters, which was called ‘Great Victories’ (Per-Ramesses) …… is immortal over the ages, owing to it. Manf’.
History of Memphis
The city was built – according to the prevailing tradition – during the reign of King ‘Mina’ (Narmer, founder of the First Dynasty), around 3150-3000 BC, indicative of the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under one leadership, and to become a new national capital and the first capital of a united Egypt. The ancient texts mentioned it as ‘Enb Haj’, meaning the white wall (which was shortened to ‘Enb’ meaning the wall), and ‘Mn-Nfer’ which means steady and beautiful, and ‘met arhant’ which means the way of rams, and the Greeks loved its name so they called it ‘their grandchildren of Memphis’ and released it Western on the names of some of their cities.
It was also described by many adjectives and epithets. Memphis remained the capital of Egypt until the end of the Old Kingdom (that is, from the First Dynasty 3150 BC until the end of the Eighth Dynasty). The proximity of the desert-edge necropolis to the settlement site reflects its occupation from this time only, although important pre-dynastic settlements are known on the east bank, at Maadi to the north and Omari near Helwan to the south.
It has not yet been determined with certainty any part of the valley settlement before the First Intermediate Period, although the current geo-archaeological work attempts to determine the change in the direction of the river and the settlement during the early dynasties (Ancient Period) and the Old Kingdom. From the beginning of ancient Egyptian history to its end, Memphis was a center of civilization and commerce.
It was necessary, if he wanted to rule all of Egypt – with its countries – efficiently, to choose this distinguished site in the area of connection of the valley with the delta, in that area in the middle of the city of Cairo, the current capital of Egypt, about 24 km south of it. For long periods in ancient history, Memphis was the actual capital of Egypt. All of this helped its urban growth and increase in the number of its residents who inhabited the various cities and villages of its territory scattered along its long Nile front.