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Pharaohs of Egypt | Info and Timeline

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Ancient pharaohs of Egypt

The ancient pharaohs of Egypt were the rulers of the Egyptian pharaonic civilization throughout its long history. They held immense power and also divine figures, serving as Egypt’s political and religious leaders. These are all the pharaohs of Egypt:

Narmer (First pharaoh of Pharaohs of Egypt)

Narmer, or “Menes”, is the first pharaoh of Egypt. He unified the two regions of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt into a single kingdom. Then, he established the first dynasty.


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Djoser was an early pharaoh of the third dynasty. In addition, he is the owner of the Step Pyramid construction at Saqqara, designed by his architect Imhotep. Moreover, this pyramid is one of the earliest large-scale stone structures in Egypt.



Sneferu ruled during the fourth dynasty and also he constructed several pyramids, including the Bent and Red Pyramids. In addition, he was known for his ambitious building projects and efforts to perfect the pyramid form.

Khufu (one of the most famous pharaohs of Egypt)


Khufu, the pharaoh of the fourth dynasty, built the Great Pyramid of Giza, which is the largest pyramid in Egypt. Besides, it is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

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Amenhotep III

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Amenhotep III reigned during the New Kingdom’s 18th dynasty. He was a prolific builder, responsible for numerous construction projects, including the Temple of Luxor and also the Colossi of Memnon. Moreover, his reign is a period of prosperity and cultural richness.



Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, introduced a religious revolution during his reign. He promoted the worship of the sun disk, Aten, as the supreme deity and established a monotheistic religious system. Besides, his reign marked a significant departure from traditional Egyptian religious beliefs.



Tutankhamun was a pharaoh of the 18th dynasty and also is famous for his intact tomb discovered in the Valley of the Kings. His tomb, filled with treasures and artefacts, provided valuable insights into ancient Egyptian culture and history.

Ramses II (one of the most famous pharaohs of Egypt)

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Ramses II, also known as Ramses the Great, ruled during the 19th dynasty. He was one of the most powerful pharaohs of Egypt and engaged in numerous military campaigns. In addition, Ramses II is known for his monumental building projects, such as the temples at Abu Simbel and the Ramesseum.

Hatshepsut (one of the most famous female pharaohs of Egypt)


Hatshepsut was a great female pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. She took on the role of pharaoh and ruled as a king, rather than a queen consort. Moreover, Hatshepsut undertook impressive building projects, including the magnificent Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahari.

Thutmose III

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Thutmose III, the stepson of Hatshepsut, was a powerful warrior pharaoh. In addition, he expanded Egypt’s empire through military campaigns, bringing considerable wealth and territory under Egyptian control.

Seti I

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Seti I ruled during the 19th dynasty and was the father of Ramses II. He conducted military campaigns against various enemies and constructed notable monuments, including the Great Hypostyle Hall at the Temple of Karnak.

Ramses III

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Ramses III was the last great pharaoh of the 20th dynasty. He faced challenges from the invading “Sea Peoples” but successfully defended Egypt. Moreover, His reign is associated with the decline of the New Kingdom and marked the end of an era of prosperity.

Cleopatra VII (the last pharaoh of Egypt)

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Cleopatra VII was the last pharaoh of Egypt and a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty. So, She is widely known for her relationship with Julius Caesar.

Egyptian pharaohs timeline

Here is a timeline of some significant Egyptian pharaohs, starting from the Early Dynastic Period to the New Kingdom. This is a list of pharaohs of Egypt names and also their timing:

  1. Narmer (c. 3100 BCE)
  2. Djoser (c. 2670 BCE)
  3. Sneferu (c. 2613–2589 BCE)
  4. Khufu (Cheops) (c. 2589–2566 BCE)
  5. Amenhotep III (c. 1386–1353 BCE)
  6. Akhenaten (c. 1353–1336 BCE)
  7. Tutankhamun (c. 1332–1323 BCE)
  8. Ramses II (c. 1279–1213 BCE)
  9. Hatshepsut (c. 1478–1458 BCE)
  10. Thutmose III (c. 1479–1425 BCE)
  11. Seti I (c. 1290–1279 BCE)
  12. Ramses III (c. 1186–1155 BCE)

History of Pharaohs of Egypt

The history of the Pharaohs of Egypt spans thousands of years, from the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3100 BCE) to the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom (30 BCE). Moreover, It is divided into several major periods, each characterized by different dynasties and notable pharaohs. Here is a broad overview of the history of the Pharaohs of Egypt:

First: Early Dynastic Period of Pharaohs of Egypt (c. 3100–2686 BCE)

 This period marks the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the rule of Narmer (also known as Menes), who is considered the first pharaoh.

Second: Old Kingdom of Pharaohs of Egypt (c. 2686–2181 BCE)

The Old Kingdom was a period of stability and monumental construction. The pharaohs of this era built famous pyramids, such as the Great Pyramid of Giza, and established a centralized government. Besides, the Pharaohs in this period such as Djoser, Sneferu, and Khufu (Cheops).

Third: First Intermediate Period of Pharaohs of Egypt (c. 2181–2055 BCE)

This period was marked by political fragmentation and social upheaval. In addition, the central authority of the pharaohs weakened, and regional rulers known as “nomarchs” gained power.

Fourth: Middle Kingdom of Pharaohs of Egypt (c. 2055–1650 BCE)

The Middle Kingdom saw the reunification of Egypt under the pharaoh Mentuhotep II. Moreover, this period was characterized by a revival of arts, literature, and monumental building projects. Notable pharaohs include Amenemhat I and also Senusret III.

Fifth: Second Intermediate Period of Pharaohs of Egypt (c. 1650–1550 BCE)

This era witnessed the invasion and occupation of Egypt by the Hyksos, a foreign Semitic people from the Levant. Besides, the Hyksos pharaohs ruled the northern part of Egypt while native Egyptian rulers-maintained control in the south.

Sixth: New Kingdom of Pharaohs of Egypt (c. 1550–1070 BCE)

The New Kingdom is Egypt’s most prosperous and powerful period. In addition, Pharaohs like Ahmose I, Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, and Ramses II ruled during this time. Moreover, Egypt expanded its empire, built grand temples and tombs, and saw advancements in art, literature, and military technology.

Seventh: Third Intermediate Period of Pharaohs of Egypt (c. 1070–664 BCE)

This period marked a centralized authority and stability decline. Egypt experienced political fragmentation, with multiple ruling dynasties and also foreign influences, such as the Libyans and Nubians.

Eighth: Late Period (c. 664–332 BCE)

The Late Period saw a succession of foreign rulers, including the Nubians (Kushites), Assyrians, and Persians. The pharaohs of the Late Period struggled to maintain Egyptian independence.

Ninth: Ptolemaic Period (305–30 BCE)

The Ptolemaic Kingdom was established after the death of Alexander the Great. In addition, the Greek-speaking Ptolemaic dynasty ruled Egypt, with Cleopatra VII being the most famous pharaoh of this period. The Ptolemaic Kingdom ended with the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE. Moreover, there are many temples built in Luxor and Aswan for Ptolemaic kings such as Philae temple.


How many pharaohs were there?

According to scholars, they may be approximately 170 to 200 pharaohs ruled ancient Egypt.

Who was the 1st pharaoh in Egypt?

Narmer was the first pharaoh of Egypt who unified Upper and Lower Egypt.

Who is the most famous Egyptian queen?

Although she didn’t rule ancient Egypt, Nefertiti is one of the most famous and remarkable queens.