Giza pyramid Complex
Giza Pyramid Complex is among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, due to its hugeness and the mystery of how it was built.
Egypt has many great and amazing monuments, but the Giza Pyramids Complex is the most famous historical archeological site.
Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs proved to the world their intelligence and creativity through their constructions and civilization.
Tourists from all over the world visit it and enjoy its view.
Giza Pyramids is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world
- The Great Pyramid, the only Wonder that still exists, stood as the world’s tallest human-made structure for nearly 4,000 years.
- Erected around 2560 B.C.E. on the west bank of the Nile River, the Great Pyramid served as the tomb of the fourth-century pharaoh Khufu (Cheops).
- It is the largest of the three Pyramids at Giza.
- The proportions of the Pyramid are colossal—even for the modern era.
- The original height from the base to the peak was around 147 meters (482 feet)—though time has worn away the height to around 138 meters (451 feet).
The ancient Egyptians built the pyramids of Giza in the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, between 2600 and 2500 BC.
The ancient Egyptians built the three pyramids on the west bank of the Nile in the city of Giza, and southwest of Cairo, the capital of the Arab Republic of Egypt, on the outskirts of the Western Desert.
Why did Ancient Egyptians build the three pyramids of Giza?
The main reason for building the pyramids is to be a tomb for each king bearing his name, as the ancient Egyptians believed in the resurrection after death and eternal life.
Innovation stages of Ancient Egyptian tombs structure:
First: It was a hole in the ground.
Second: The cemetery has become composed of several rooms topped by a terrace.
Third: It took the form of a stepped pyramid, like the pyramid of King Djoser in the Third Dynasty.
Fourth: I settled on the complete hierarchical form, such as the pyramid of King Sneferu, founder of the Fourth Dynasty, but they did not take a wrong shape in the end.
Fifth: The engineer Hamiono, the engineer of King Khufu, succeeded perfectly and then also built the pyramid of Khafre and Menkaure.
- King Khufu ordered his engineer Himeno to build a tomb for him in the form of a pyramid as large as possible and then he built it.
- Then he built the pyramid of Khafre, which is smaller than it and is located southwest of the Great Pyramid of Khufu.
- Finally, he built the smaller pyramid of Menkaure to the southwest of the pyramid of Khafre.
It took thirty years to build the Great Pyramid, however, the construction of the Great Pyramid took ten years.
How did The Ancient Egyptians build the Giza pyramids built?
First: Ancient Egyptians collected the stones that they used in the construction from the area surrounding the pyramids. While they brought the granite stones from Aswan via the Nile River due to their strong quality.
Second: Ancient Egyptians cut and separate the stones by making holes at a close distance in the piece of stones, then knocking wooden pieces inside the holes and pouring water on them until the size of the wood increased until the stone separated from each other.
Third: Later they polish the stone with granite.
Fourth: Moving stones:
Ancient Egyptian laborers transport the stones on wooden skis on wheels made of palm trunks due to their heaviness. Then pull these skis by attaching them to oxen.
Fifth: Finally, they completely cover the pyramid with limestone.
What is the Giza pyramid complex include?
Giza Pyramid Complex includes many tombs, pyramids, and temples such as:
First: Giza Great Pyramid of King Khufu and its extensions:
The ancient Egyptians called it “Akhet Khufu”, a hieroglyphic word meaning “Khufu’s horizon”.
Vizier Himeno, the nephew of King Khufu, built the pyramid in 2650 BC, with a height of 148 m.
Interior description of Khufu’s pyramid:
The main entrance: is located on the north side.
- The first room under the pyramid is built into the rocky floor.
- The second room is the “Queens Chamber” and it is in the middle of the pyramid.
- The third room contains the sarcophagus of Khufu.
The Great Vestibule:
It connects the third chamber and the queen’s chamber.
Extensions of king Khufu’s pyramid:
Mortuary Temple: Archaeologists only found its remains.
Valley Temple: Archeologists didn’t find it, they believed that a village was built in its place.
There are sun boats inside seven pits next to the pyramid, two pits on the eastern and southern sides, two pits next to the pyramids of the queens, and the last one next to the funerary sanctuary.
They are funerary ships that ancient Egyptians used to conduct funeral rites because the Egyptians believed in the resurrection after death in ancient Egypt, as they called the ships of the spirit of the gods.
About 25,000 workers built the pyramid, and housing was provided for them next to the pyramid, in addition, those food and living necessities were provided, and their families were gathered with them.
Second: Giza Pyramid of King Khafraa and its extensions:
It was built in line with the pyramid of Khufu, its height is 143, moreover, it was built on an area of 215 m.
Interior description of Khafraa’s pyramid:
The main entrance of Khafraa’s pyramid: two entrances, one at the top of the pyramid and the other at the bottom of the pyramid.
The burial chamber of Khafraa pyramid: It is a carved chamber in the rock, in addition, that the two entrances to it reach.
Sub-room of Khafraa’s pyramid: used to store offerings and burial equipment.
The Mortuary Temple of Khafraa’s pyramid:
They built it due to sanctify the pharaoh after his death.
Valley Temple of Khafraa’s pyramid: Ancient Egyptians used to build on the shore of the Nile and were connected by a road called the “Process Road”, where rituals were performed for the pharaoh after his death, and later after his body was embalmed, he was transferred to the funerary temple to be placed inside the coffin.
Third: Giza Pyramid of King Menkawra and its extensions:
It was built between the pyramid of Khufu and the pyramid of Khafre, however with a lower height, reaching 65 m.
Interior description of Menkawra’s pyramid:
The main entrance of Menkawraa’s pyramid: It is located to the north of the pyramid.
Two inclined vaults of Menkawraa’s pyramid: one of them leads to the entrance to a room under the pyramid, and the other end with a wall.
Burial Chamber of Menkawraa’s pyramid: Found below the first chamber.
The sarcophagus was made of granite and moreover, it was decorated with inscriptions.
Valley Temple of Menkauraa’s pyramid:
Fourth: Tombs of the Queens:
Tomb of Queen Hetep-heres:
- She is the mother of King Khufu and the wife of King Sneferu.
- In addition, her tomb is located northeast of the Great Pyramid.
- It is a square well with a burial chamber.
Tomb of Queen Khentkaus:
- She is the wife of King Shepses Kaf, and after his death, thus she was the guardian of his son and she assumed the throne.
- In addition, She is the first queen to have written on her pyramid, “The King of the Upper and Lower Egypt, the Royal Mother and the Daughter of God.”
- Her tomb is located near the valley temple of Menkaure.
Fifth: The Great Sphinx:
- It is located on the western bank of the Nile River, thus it is a guarding of the Giza plateau.
- It is a statue representing the power of the pharaoh, due to its curved shape with the body of a lion and the head of a human being.
- Moreover, scientists differed about the character of the pharaoh that he embodies, some believe that he is Khufu and others believe that he is Khafre.
- It has also a temple called “Temple of the Sphinx”.
7- Tomb of Hemon (The architect of the Great Pyramids)
Sixth: Necropolis and Workers Village
- They are the remains of small housing for the workers who contributed to the construction of these three pyramids.
- Archeologists have found the Tomb of Hemon the architect of the Great Pyramid there.
Seventh: Westside Mastabas:
It is located west of the pyramid of King Khufu, which is a group of terraces
Who is King Khufu?
- He is the second king of the Fourth Dynasty from the era of the Old Kingdom.
- He took the throne in 2580 BC after his father, King Sneferu, founder of the Fourth Dynasty.
- His mother was Queen Hetepheres, and his son Khafre followed on the throne, then Khafre begot King Menkaurea.
- Despite the grandeur of the pyramid of Khufu, only a single statue of ivory was found in Abydos.
Who is King Khafraa?
- He is the third pharaoh of the fourth dynasty of the Old Kingdom, and he is the son of King Khufu Pharaoh.
- In addition, he ruled between the years 2559 and 2535 BC. Khafre married four wives, one of whom had a son, Menkaure.
Who is King Menkaura?
- He is the fourth king of the Fourth Dynasty in the era of the Old Kingdom,so he took the throne after his father Khafre.
- In addition that he ruled Egypt for 18 years according to the Turin Papyrus.
In the end, the Giza pyramid complex is considered one of the most important monuments in the whole world because of its hugeness and until now there is still a mystery about how to raise the stones to the top of the pyramid. Moreover, this indicates the genius of the ancient Egyptians and their ingenuity in engineering and architecture.