How were the Egyptian pyramids built?

Egyptian pyramids

The pyramids are historically important buildings; Thanks to their intricate design, in addition to the hieroglyphic writings and distinctive artifacts found in it, the number of pyramids in Egypt is approximately 138 pyramids, all built for the same purpose; It is the burial of the kings of the pharaohs there, as they were all built on the western side of the Nile ; Because of its close connection with the world of the dead, the pyramid of Khufu in Giza is the largest of the Egyptian pyramids, and it is considered one of the seven wonders of the world. As for the pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara, it is considered the oldest Egyptian pyramid; It was built in the 27th century BC.

How were the pyramids of Egypt built?

The ancient Egyptians needed a lot of labour; In order to build the pyramids, noting that the period of building the pyramids was not a short period; For example, the Great Pyramid of Khufu was built over a period of 23 years, and it took between 20,000-30000 men to build, and it was believed that slaves were the ones who worked in building the pyramids, but research conducted by Professor Donald Redford; He is a professor of ancient Mediterranean studies, who mentioned a contradiction to what was prevalent regarding those who worked in building the pyramids, as he mentioned that it was the farmers who worked in building the pyramids, and that was in return for some incentives, such as providing them with food, housing, and clothes for free, in addition to exempting them from taxes . The limestone building pyramids basis, in addition to other materials, Kajeranat used in the construction of interior walls, basalt that was used in flooring, workers have used different tools; In order to be able to break stones, such as pickaxes, granite hammers, and copper chisels, and after crushing, they are transported to the construction sites through boats in the Nile, knowing that they were pulled and transported to the place of construction by a lubricated pillar, and this was confirmed by one of the sculptures in an ancient cemetery; It depicts a group of men (173 men), pulling stones by a greased beam, and they are lifted to the top by brick stairs, covered with hardening wax .

The way in which the pyramids were built is a secret that many scientists and researchers have tried to reveal through drawings and murals that were revealed during excavations and excavations in the pyramids. in the tomb of Djehutihotep; It shows a man pouring water in front of the skis on the sand, which shows the trick that the ancient Egyptians used in transporting heavy stones to build the pyramids.

This painting is considered a key to knowing the method used by the pharaohs in building the pyramids, which was by pouring water on the sand; To facilitate the movement of stones on the latch, and dragged by slaves.

The most important Egyptian pyramids

The following are the most important pyramids in Egypt:

Giza Pyramids: The three pyramids of Giza were built between approximately 2575 and 2465 BC, during the era of the Fourth Dynasty, in the area west of the Nile River in northern Egypt, on a rocky plateau near Giza.

These three pyramids were considered one site of world heritage in 1979 AD According to UNESCO (the United Nations Organization for Science, Education, and Culture), the pyramid of Khufu is the oldest of these three pyramids, and it was named after the second ruler of the Fourth Dynasty (Khufu), which is also called the Great Pyramid; Its original height is 147 meters, and the length of all its facades from the base is approximately 230 meters on average.

The middle pyramid was built from the pyramids of Giza for King Khafre; The fourth king of the Fourth Dynasty, and was named after him, as its length is 216 m from the base, and its original height is 143 m. With regard to the third pyramid, it is the southern pyramid that was built for Menkaure; The fifth king of the Fourth Dynasty, with an original height of 66 m, and a length of 109 m from its base.

It is worth noting that these three pyramids were stolen from the inside and outside, in ancient times and the Middle Ages.

Pyramid of Djoser: The pyramid of Djoser, which is considered one of the oldest memorial buildings in the world, is located in the Saqqara region. It is part of a complex for the burial of King Zoser, king of the Third Dynasty. The tomb of King Zoser was distinguished from others by the blue bricks that adorn this pyramid, and hieroglyphic letters , It is worth noting that the design of this unique pyramid came by the architect Imhotep, who made it a six-tiered pyramid, with a height of 61 meters.

The pyramid was built in the period between 2630 and 2611 BC. The Red Pyramid: In the Dahshur region, not far from Saqqara, is the Red Pyramid built for Pharaoh Sneferu (father of King Khufu), which is considered the first real pyramid built in Egypt, and it ranks second in terms of the largest Egyptian pyramids in terms of its base. It is noteworthy that the visitor can access the burial chamber in this pyramid, and see it in full.

Pyramid of Meidum: On the edge of the desert is the Meidum pyramid, which was built by order of King Sneferu, and it is considered the first attempt of the pharaohs to build the pyramids. The sands of the desert, and the pyramid of Meidum is the first pyramid to appear at the top of the burial chamber in the form of an arch with beautiful and impressive walls.