The Pilgrimage to Mecca
The pilgrimage to Mecca in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important religious rites for which Muslims are famous, as millions go to perform these rituals to please God as well as to achieve an important pillar of the five pillars of Islam.
Hajj has many benefits, as it shows the extent of equality between all groups of people before God. Everyone wears the same dress, repeats the same Talbiyah, and performs the same rituals, thus uniting Muslims and implementing the goals of Islamic law.
What is Hajj to Mecca in Islam?
Hajj is the pilgrimage of Muslims to Mecca and the performance of the rites of Pilgrimage during the Pilgrimage season every year.
The Pilgrimage to Mecca is obligatory for Muslims:
- God Almighty said: “In it are Signs Manifest; the Station of Abraham; whoever enters it attains security; Pilgrimage thereto is duty men owe to Allah, those who can afford the journey; but if any deny faith, Allah stands not in need of any of His creatures.”
- God made the Pilgrimage obligatory for Muslims in the ninth year of Hijrah.
- The Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace, performed pilgrimage only once, and it is known as the last Pilgrimage in the tenth year of Hijrah. Therefore, it is an obligation for every adult Muslim, which is estimated once in a lifetime.
- The Pilgrimage is one of the most important five pillars of Islam, which are: Witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God, Perform prayer, pay zakat, fast Ramadan, and make a pilgrimage to Mecca for those who are able to do so.
What is the timing of the Pilgrimage to Mecca each year?
The rites of Hajj begin every year on the eighth of Dhul-Hijjah.
What are the conditions of Hajj?
- Being Muslim.
- To be an adult.
- Being Sane.
- Having the ability.
Types of pilgrimage rituals:
First: the pilgrimage to Mecca of “Al-Mutamattu’”:
To perform the Umrah and then the pilgrimage in one trip at the time of pilgrimage, where he does the following:
1- Where he intends to perform Umrah first in the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah, then he says: “Labbaik Umrah.”
2- He goes to Mecca and performs the entire rites of Umrah, then breaks out of Ihram by default.
3- Later on the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah, the entire Hajj rituals begin.
Second: Pilgrimage to Mecca of “AL-Qur’an”:
He performs the Umrah and Hajj together in the same rituals as follows:
1- He intends to perform Hajj and Umrah together when he enters Ihram and says:” Labbaik Hajj w Umrah”
2- He goes to Mecca and performs the circumambulation of arrival.
3- At the time of pilgrimage, he performs the entire pilgrimage rituals.
4- Performs all rituals once for Hajj and Umrah together.
Third: Pilgrimage to Mecca of “Al-Ifrad”:
To perform Hajj only, then leave Mecca and return again to perform Umrah as follows:
1- The intention when entering Ihram is to perform Hajj only and say “Labbaik Hajj”.
2- He goes to Mecca and remains in Ihram until the time of the Pilgrimage.
3- He performs the entire pilgrimage rituals and then dissolves from them.
4- Leaving Mecca.
5- Later, He does Ihram to Mecca again with the intention of Umrah and performing its rituals in full.
What is Meqat Al-Hajj to Mecca?
The time Miqat for Hajj: They are; Shawwal and Dhul Qi’dah and the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.
The spatial Miqat for Ihram is as follows according to the country:
The Miqat for the people of Medina: Dhul-Hulaifa.
Miqat for the people of the Levant, Morocco, and Egypt: Al-Juhfa.
Miqat for the people of Yemen: Saadiya.
What are the nullifications of pilgrimage?
- Hair removal.
- Trimming the nails.
- Wild hunting.
- Wearing sewn clothes for men.
- Head covering for men.
- Wearing gloves or niqab for women.
What are the rituals of the Pilgrimage to Mecca?
- The circumambulation (Tawaf) of welcoming.
- Sa’y between Safa and Marwa.
- Tarwiyah Day.
- Arafah Day.
- Stoning of the Devil (Ramy al-Jamarat).
- Animal Sacrificing.
- Dissolution of Ihram.
- Tawaf al-Ifadah.
- Stoning of the Devil (Ramy al-Jamarat).
- The last Tawaf.
First Piglimage ritual: Ihram:
- It is the first ritual of Hajj, and it is the intention to perform Hajj with the Talbiyah.
- In it, men wear a pure white robe, while women wear whatever they want, provided that it is a cover-up, and avoid wearing the niqab or gloves.
- The pilgrim performs ablution and then prays the two kneelings (rak’ahs) of Ihram.
- Intention for Hajj:
Al-Hajj Al-Mutamattu’: Says “Labbaika Umrah.”
Hajj Al-Muqrin: It says, “Labbaika Hajj and Umrah.”
Hajj singular: Says “Labbaika Hajj”
Second Piglimage ritual: the circumambulation (Tawaf) of welcoming:
It is the Tawaf of greeting those coming from other than Makkah Al-Mukarramah, and it is the first thing that the Messenger, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, started with.
Third Piglimage ritual: Sa’y between Safa and Marwa:
Sa’y seven times between Safa and Marwa as Hager did.
When our Ibrahim, peace be upon him left Hagar with our Ismail in the valley, Ismail, peace be upon him became thirsty, so Hagar looked for water, so she climbed on Safa and saw a mirage as if it was water, then she went to Al-Marwah and did that seven times until she saw water coming out of the ground under the feet of our Ismail, peace be upon him so that she tried to collect it, and she used to say “Zomi Zomi” until it was called “Zamzam water”.
Fourth Piglimage ritual: Tarwiyah Day:
- It is the eighth day of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah, on which the pilgrim goes to Mina and spends the night there and performs the five daily prayers.
- It is called Tarwiyah Day for two reasons:
First: Because the pilgrim drinks much water in it before Arafa day.
Second: Because in it came to the vision of our Ibrahim, peace be upon him that he was slaughtering his son Ismail, peace be upon him and when he woke up, he narrated in himself, is it a dream? Or from God?
Fifth Piglimage ritual: Mountain of Arafat:
- It is the ninth day of the month of Dhu al-Hijjah and is one of the most important basic pillars of Hajj Mecca.
- Mountain of Arafat is located east of Mecca on the road between it and Taif, which is a wide, flat plain in the form of a large arc.
- It is called Arafat for two reasons:
First: The Prophet Adam met Eve after his descent from Paradise in this place.
Second: Gabriel made a circumambulation of Prophet Abraham in this place, and he used to introduce the rituals of Hajj to him while Ibrahim, peace be upon him was saying” I know that” (Araft)
Sixth Piglimage ritual: Muzdalifah
The pilgrim stays in Arafat in an area between the two mountains called Muzdalifah.
Seventh Piglimage ritual: Stoning of the Devil (Ramy al-Jamarat Al-Aqabah)
The stoning of Jamarat al-Aqaba takes place between the day of Eid al-Adha and the dawn of the next day.
Eighth Piglimage ritual: Animal Sacrificing
- The pilgrim completes the Eid prayer, then he slaughters the sacrificial animal and returns the sacrifice as a sacrifice for our Ismail, peace be upon him as Ibrahim, peace be upon him saw a vision in his dream that he was slaughtering Ismail, peace be upon him and when he told Ismail, he said to him, “My father, do what you are commanded” because it was an order from God, but when they master Ibrahim implementing the vision, God ransomed him with a great ram.
- Therefore, we must sacrifice an animal at this time as a sacrifice for Ismail, peace be upon him, as it is one of the rituals of Hajj, and the time of slaughter extends until sunset on the third day of the days of Tashreeq.
Ninth Piglimage ritual: Dissolution from Hajj:
After the sacrifice is slaughtered, the head is shaved or shortened, and as soon as the head is shaved, everything that was forbidden during Hajj is permissible for him except for women, and it is called the first dissolution.
Tenth Piglimage ritual: Tawaf Al-Ifadah:
After that, the pilgrim goes to Mecca and performs seven circumambulations, and with this, the second dissolution is done and everything is permitted for him, even the women.
Eleven Piglimage ritual: Days of Tashreeq
- The days of al-Tashreeq are the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth days of the month of Dhul-Hijjah, which are the three days that follow the sacrifice.
- It was called by this name because people put the sacrificial meat in the rising sun.
Twelfth Piglimage ritual: Stoning of the Devil (Ramy al-Jamarat)
The pilgrim throws the three small, middle, and major Jamarat, and the takbeer must be said when stoning the Jamarat.
Thirteenth Piglimage ritual: The Farewell Tawaf
It is a circumambulation (Tawaf) with which the pilgrim bids farewell to the Kaaba, as he circles around it seven times and prays two kneelings of prayer behind the Maqam, Ibrahim, as a conclusion of the rituals.
In conclusion, the Islamic religion is based on principles of equality and justice, so this is applied in the rituals of Hajj. There is no difference between rich or poor, white or black, Arab or non-Arab, so you will find all of them side by side performing the rituals and saying the same Talbiyah. One of the most important benefits of Hajj is the feeling of jihad for the sake of God and making God’s name honored while performing the rituals.