The Lighthouse of Alexandria
- The Lighthouse of Alexandria or the Lighthouse of Alexandria ( Greek: Φάρος της Αλεξάνδρειας ) is one of the seven wonders of the world and was called Pharos.
- Its location was on the tip of the Pharos Peninsula, which is the current location of Qaitbay Castle in the city of Alexandria in Egypt.
- It is the first lighthouse in the world.
- The architect Sostrat built it during the reign of ” Ptolemy II ” in 270 BC.
- The lighthouse rises 120 meters and an earthquake destroyed it in an earthquake in 1323.
When was the lighthouse built? Who built it?
the lighthouse of Alexandria wonder was established in 280 BC., In the era of ” Ptolemy II “, was built by the architect of Greek ” Sostratus of Cnidus,”
Where is the lighthouse located?
The location of the lighthouse of Alexandria is on the tip of the Pharos Peninsula, which is the present site of the Qaitbay Citadel in the Egyptian city of Alexandria.
The lighthouse of Alexandria is the wonder of the World
- It is historically established that the Lighthouse of Alexandria, was one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
- Its length of one hundred and twenty meters, so it was the highest building of its time.
- Some believe that the stones of Qaitbay Citadel are the destroyed stones lighthouse destroyed because the castle site is the same as the site of the collapsed lighthouse.
- Al- Masudi, in the year 944 AD, described its height at about 230 cubits.
How did the earthquake affect the lighthouse?
- An earthquake occurred in 1303 AD during the reign of Sultan ” Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qalawun “.
- That earthquake hit the eastern Mediterranean and destroyed the forts, walls, and minaret of Alexandria.
- Al-Maqrizi described, in his plans, the destruction that afflicted the city.
- He mentioned that Prince Rukn al-Din Biber al-Jashnkir had the minaret, i.e., restored it, in the year 703 AH.
- Half a century after that devastating earthquake, Ibn Battuta visited Alexandria on his second trip, in the year 1350 AD, and wrote: “I went to the lighthouse, upon my return to the Maghreb, and found it destroyed by ruin so that it is not possible to enter it or ascend to it; the ” King Nasser “, began to build the lighthouse Bazaiha, Fagah death for its completion. “
- The Egyptian historian “ Ibn Iyas ” relates that when Sultan “ Al-Ashraf Qaitbay ” visited Alexandria in 1477 AD, he built a new tower.
- The new tower was in the same place as the lighthouse.
- The Qaitbay Tower is still standing today.
Description of the lighthouse of Alexandria
- The lighthouse consisted of four sections, the first being a square base, in which there were many windows.
- It contained about 300 rooms, equipped for housing the technicians operating the lighthouse and their families.
- The second floor was octagonal, and the third round.
- Finally comes Fanar summit, where he settles the lantern, lighting source in the lighthouse,
- A statue of Isis Lord Fanar Isis Faria surmounted the fanar.
- Interestingly, the name of the island of Pharos “Pharos” became a beacon note convention, or a lighthouse, in European languages.
How does the lighthouse work?
- No one knew, with certainty, how the lighthouse was working.
- Some jurisprudence appeared, experts and historians did not settle on any of them.
- There is a description of a huge mirror, refracting the rays, at the top of the lighthouse. It made it possible to see the incoming ships, before the naked eye.
- The ancient Arab traveler Ibn Jubayr wrote that the light of the lighthouse was visible from a distance of 70 miles, in the sea.
- Going up to the lighthouse, and going down from it, was by a spiral ramp. The fuel was in the place of the lantern, on the last floor, by a hydraulic system. Forster described another method for raising the fuel (wood) to the site of the lantern.
- He mentioned that a long line of donkeys was in constant motion, day or night, up and down the spiral ramp, carrying wood fuel on their backs!
Research about the Lighthouse of Alexandria
- The team of archaeological researchers working at the Qaitbay site is seeking to obtain stone blocks belonging to the ruins of the ancient lighthouse, knowing that its facade bore a memorial plaque, carved in huge Greek letters. , are the ruins of the Phanar.
- Some historians doubt that the ancient lighthouse is the source of these blocks, and believe that they are just rocks from the water because in the Middle Ages, as a defensive measure to close the port to the ships of the invading Crusaders.
- Nevertheless, ” Jean-Yves Emperor ” still clings to his belief that among these sunken ruins pieces of the Phanar’s body, fell into the water when destroyed huge tower, by the earthquake.
In conclusion, Alexandria has many great monuments, but the lighthouse of Alexandria was the first built at that time. It was also the highest building. That’s why it is one of the great wonders of the world.