Cities of Palestine
The city of Jerusalem is considered the cradle of the three monotheistic religions, Islam, Christianity and Judaism, and its history dates back to more than five thousand years. It is thus considered one of the oldest cities in the world, where the civilizations of the Bronze Age, Iron Age, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Crusader, Umayyad, Abbasid, and Fatimid followed, The Ayyubid, the Mamluk, and the Ottomans, leaving behind their monuments and archaeological manuscripts. Throughout these ages, it has been nicknamed by many titles, the most important of which are the city of Yabus, Elijah, Jerusalem, and Jerusalem. The city of Jerusalem is a global tourist destination visited by many people around the world due to its religious and historical importance; It includes many important religious monuments ; Like the Dome of the Rock, the Al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem is divided into 4 main neighborhoods: the Islamic neighborhood, the Christian neighborhood, the Armenian neighborhood, and the Jewish neighborhood.
Gaza City is located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, 32 km north of the Egyptian border. It gained great importance as a result of its geographical location on the coastal road of the Mediterranean Sea. Gaza is one of the oldest cities in the world, where many civilizations have succeeded, and it fell under the rule of many invaders; Such as the pharaohs, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Ottomans, and others. In the year 636 AD, Gaza became under Islamic rule, and it was ruled by the Ayyubids, the Mamluks, and the Ottomans, and it flourished during this period as a major trading center and a station on the main trade route between Egypt, Palestine , and the Arabian Peninsula.  Gaza City is an important economic center for the cultivation of citrus and other crops. The city is also famous for its hand-woven carpets, bamboo furniture and pottery. It has many public gardens and restaurants on its shore, whose visitors enjoy the gentle Mediterranean breeze, in addition to its historical importance.
The city of Bethlehem is located 10 km south of the Old City of Jerusalem. The reason for calling it Bethlehem is due to the abundance of meat in it due to the abundance of fertile pastures and livestock. The city of Bethlehem is an ancient Canaanite city inhabited by the Canaanites for a long time, and they called it Beit Elie Lahma , where El means god, and Lahama is a name given to the god of harvest and fertility by the Canaanites, then various tribes groups rolled over it. Bethlehem is located in a mountainous location at an altitude of 772 m above the level of the Mediterranean Sea, and therefore it enjoys a Mediterranean climate where the summer is hot Dry, cold and rainy winters.
Bethlehem has acquired a special religious sanctity for Christians as the birthplace of Jesus Christ. It is also distinguished by its spiritual and historical importance due to its unique religious sites. As the Church of the Nativity, and as a result, the Church of the Nativity and the Old City were added in 2012 to the list of World Heritage sites; The Church of the Nativity became the first Palestinian site inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
There were many opinions about the naming of the city of Ramallah this name, but the most closest health is that the word Ram is a word origin Kanani sense of the region high, and the word of God is to add the Arabs to become Ramallah, and of the city of Ramallah area of approximately 18.6 thousand km 2 It is a mountainous city where it was built on a mountain with a view of the Palestinian coast in the west, surrounded by mountains to the east and south, and only 15 km from Jerusalem, the capital of Palestine, and it rises from sea level about 830-880 meters.  The foundation of the city of Ramallah dates back to the sixteenth century AD by a sheikh named Rashid Al-Haddadin. With the passage of time, Ramallah began to expand; In the year 1807 AD, the first Greek Orthodox church was built there, and in 1869 AD the Friends School for Girls was opened there.
Nablus is located in the north of the West Bank, 69 km north of Jerusalem and 42 km east of the Mediterranean Sea. It is located in a narrow valley between the mountains of Ebal and Gerizim. It is considered the heart of Palestine as it connects its north to its south and east to its west. Nablus also enjoys an important geographical location due to its location at the crossroads of ancient trade routes. It connects from east to west the Jordan Valley with the coast of the Mediterranean and Egypt, and from north to south connects Damascus with Jerusalem.
Historically, research indicates that the city of Nablus was inhabited for the first time in the fourth millennium BC, but it did not gain its prominent position until the Romans built a new city in it, which they called Flavia Neapolis, and in the early seventh century AD Muslims entered the city and came under their rule, and the city continued to flourish Socially and economically, many mosques, schools, etc. were built there. In the early twentieth century AD, the area was subjected to a strong earthquake that destroyed many of the city’s historical buildings.
During the British Mandate, Nablus was an arena for armed clashes, which caused more of its destruction. After the 1948 war, Nablus received thousands of Palestinian refugees who were displaced from the areas captured by Israel. Today, Nablus is a vital commercial center, as it is home to the largest university in Palestine, which is the University of Nablus. National success, as it is full of markets, crowded inns, traditional restaurants, soap factories, and other handicraft shops, in addition to medical centers and old traditional baths.
The city of Hebron is located 30 km south of Jerusalem, at an altitude of 950 m above sea level, which makes it the highest city in Palestine. Hebron is also considered one of the oldest Palestinian cities and the world at all; The city is more than 5,500 years old, and Hebron has developed significantly over time; Today, it is considered one of the most important Palestinian industrial and commercial centers; It is witnessing an economic development that is considered the strongest among the rest of the Palestinian cities, as its production constitutes about 21.3% of the total production of the rest of the cities combined.
Hebron is famous for its traditional handicrafts; Such as the manufacture of glass, pottery, food, and leather, in addition to modern industries; Such as shoemaking, weaving, food, mining, stone and marble work, and many of its residents work in agriculture, given that the city is surrounded by valleys and fertile mountains where vineyards abound, and Hebron is home to many religious and historical sites; Like Ibrahim’s tomb, and the Ibrahimi Mosque, which is visited by thousands of tourists from inside and outside Palestine annually.
Khan Yunis borders Deir al-Balah to the north, Rafah to the south, the 1948 Green Line to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the west. Khan Tunis is an important commercial center, as a municipal council was established there during the Ottoman era, which is the second largest in the Gaza Strip Khan Younis also owns the agricultural status of the large number of agricultural land where, with an estimated cultivated area in which about 37.3 km² , of which 18.1 km² suitable land for agriculture.
Jericho is located only 10 km east of Jerusalem, very close to the Dead Sea, and its climate is characterized by a very high temperature, as it is located at a depth of 274.02 m below sea level, which also makes it the lowest city in the world, and Jericho is the oldest inhabited city populated; Archaeologists have discovered the remains of at least 20 consecutive settlements dating back to 9000 BC.
Jericho is one of the most popular destinations in Palestine because of its restaurants, hotels, and facilities to meet all needs, as well as a suspended locomotive or cable car, in addition to the Russian Museum and Garden that contains information about the traditions of Russian pilgrims to the Holy Land, and the archaeological excavations of the Byzantine Church in The site, and on the grounds of the museum there is a legendary sycamore tree that is more than 2,000 years old, and the Spanish gardens are a great place to relax.
Qalqilya is a relatively small but vibrant governorate that depends entirely on agriculture for its economy; It is surrounded by rural areas that extend on the slopes of the towering hills, and is completely isolated from its suburbs, and one of its most important features is the zoo, which includes a park and museum, and is the only park in the West Bank, making it a major attraction, in addition to the market, which despite its small size In relation to the Nablus and Jerusalem market, it is a fun place to explore and sample the many local baked goods and buy fresh fruit.
Jenin is located 41 km north of the city of Nablus, and is 250 meters above sea level. It was named by this name in relation to the gardens that surround it. The Romans built in the old city a city mentioned as Jinai from the villages of Sebastia, and in the seventh century AD, it was conquered by Muslim Arabs, and it was known as Jenin From that time until today. Jenin is distinguished by a strategic location that makes it a link between the transportation routes coming from Nablus, and the transportation point for the roads heading to Haifa, Nazareth, Nablus, and Jerusalem. Among its most important landmarks are the Great Mosque, and Khirbat Atiya, which is located east of Jenin and contains a destroyed village, in addition to Khirbet Kharouba, which is located North of Jenin on a hill, it contains the remains of a tower with a sloping base, foundations, walls, cisterns, caves, and tombs.
The city of Ramallah was founded in the Umayyad era by Suleiman bin Abdul Malik in 715 AH, when he made it the seat of his caliphate. And the Samaritans, and with time, Ramallah advanced in various fields until it became one of the major cities of the Levant and a center for the boycott of Palestine, and it is worth mentioning that it remained the capital of Palestine for about 400 years until it was occupied by the Franks in 1099 AH. Ramallah rises about 108 m above sea level, its land area is 9,830,038 km² , and its population was estimated in 1948 at 17,586 people. Al-Abyad and its minaret, the tomb of Al-Fadl bin Al-Abbas, in addition to the shrine of the Prophet Saleh.
Jaffa is one of Palestine’s windows to the Mediterranean; It is located on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, about 7 km south of the mouth of the Auja River, and about 60 km northwest of the city of Jerusalem. The Jaffa region has flat land, fertile soil, abundant water, and a moderate climate. The nature of the straight Jaffa coast varies between rocky cliffs, some of which stand up to about 35 meters above sea level, and shallow sandy beaches interspersed with some swamps at the mouths of some waterways.
Jaffa has a moderate Mediterranean climate in Jaffa, where rain falls during the winter half of the year, and the relative humidity is high in summer and winter. Jaffa was inhabited at the beginning of the fourth millennium BC, and then, since the middle of the third millennium BC, the migration of the Semitic waves of The Arabian Peninsula is towards western Asia, and the construction of the city of Jaffa dates back to the third wave of it. Jaffa was subjected to the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine rule, all the way to the Islamic conquest. It was ruled by the Mamluks and the Ottomans, and in the second half of the nineteenth century AD it was under the British mandate .
Nazareth is one of the largest and most beautiful cities in Palestine, and it has a special place in the hearts of Christians around the world, where they make pilgrimages to it as they make pilgrimages to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem and the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. Within a medium-altitude area, about 400 meters above sea level, Nazareth is surrounded by part of the high mountains of Galilee. زThe climate of Nazareth is characterized by a Mediterranean climate; Where it is hot and dry in summer, and warm and rainy in winter, archaeological excavations indicate that Nazareth was inhabited during the Middle Bronze Age and the Iron Age, and many civilizations that ruled Nazareth followed; such as the Umayyads, the Abbasids, the Crusaders, and the Ottomans.
The city of Tulkarm is located 12 km from the Mediterranean Sea, and about 15 km to the west of the city of Nablus. Its location between the coastal plain and the mountains of central Palestine made it an important station along the trade and conquest routes throughout history. any mountain of chrome; This is due to the fertility of its land, and during the Ayyubid period – that is, after the Mamluk era 1260 – 1516 AD – most of the lands of Tulkarm became part of the endowment to support the Persian school in Jerusalem, and agriculture is one of the most important elements of Tulkarm’s economy, and its most important crops are grains, citrus fruits, olives, and other fruits